Academic research and professional writing are powerful vehicles for communicating your thoughts and ideas not only in your field of study but also in the global workplace. University writing assignments allow you to practice academic and professional writing in a way that supports ethical and honorable writing choices that clearly communicate your ideas and learning.
Your classes and programs are designed to guide you step-by-step through the development of your written communication skills. For example, assignments provide the paremeters of each writing situation, so following the instructions is important in getting started and successfully completing each piece of university writing.
CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY WRITING
There are three ways to integrate research within academic and professional writing.
WHY WE CITE
In-Text Citation Examples
Signal phrase to cite a paraphrase: Smith (2010) recognized that more online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate.
Signal phrase to cite a quote (Note the page number is added at the end of the quote in a second set of parentheses): Smith (2010) stressed, “The importance of dedicated study time for online courses is crucial for student success” (p. 3).
Parenthetical citation to cite a paraphrase: Online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate (Smith, 2010).
Parenthetical citation to cite a quote: Many researchers have agreed: “Online education is a viable way to help working adults earn a college degree, but it is not for everyone” (Smith, 2010, p. 4).
If there is no individual author, name the corporate author or sponsoring organization:
(National Geographic, 2011, p. 78)
If there is no individual or corporate author, use a shortened version of the title for the in-text citation:
(“Whales of the Atlantic,” 2010)
No year or page number?
No year? Use the acronym for “no date” in the citation:
No page number? Use the paragraph number. To determine it, begin at the title or heading and count the paragraphs to get to the one that contains your quote:
(Sagorski, n.d., para. 4).
APA Reference List Entries
Reference list entries are formatted on a separate page at the end of your paper and provide the full bibliographic information for each source cited in text. The references tell who the author is, when the publication was, what the title is, and where the source was published. In APA Style Central, you will find the specifics for formatting references.
The University's official policy on plagiarism is available in the University Catalog. See the Code of Student Conduct for details.
Accidental plagiarism may result from improperly using or inaccurately citing a source, while intentional plagiarism is knowingly using a source without proper citation or any citation. Both accidental and intentional plagiarism can be prevented with proper credit of the borrowed information, but both accidental and intentional plagiarism also have the same consequences of plagiarism. See the Code of Student Conduct for details.
While original work is expected for each course and each assignment, there are instances when it is appropriate for a student to build on ideas from a previous assignment by citing himself or herself. You may therefore cite of previous work in a new work using the appropriate citation method. Note: Copying large portions or entire assignments for use in more than one course or assignment is considered cheating and is not permitted per the Code of Student Conduct.
Access the Writing Center from the University homepage by clicking “My Studies” then “Academic Support Center.” The Writing Center offers multiple modes of assistance for all Purdue University Global students:
The Coursework Resubmission Policy allows students who are retaking a University course after a failed attempt to resubmit previous coursework with proper citation and advance notice to the instructor. Read the Coursework Resubmission Policy Resource for details and stipulations. Note: This policy does not apply to Concord Law students.
Most automatic formatting programs and citation generators rely heavily on the user's ability to plug in information correctly, so these types of tools should be used sparingly and cautiously ad usually only after the user has a basic understanding of APA style. The Writing Center recommends students use APA Style Central, which has templates for APA formatting.
There are many citation styles, and your field of work determines which to use or how you reference other source material. It is important to remember to always give credit to the work and ideas of others.
Like other types of research, visuals such as photographs, tables, or charts borrowed or copied directly from a source have to be cited both in the text and on a reference list. On the other hand, if you use your own photography in your paper, you will not need to cite it. For borrowed images, the source of the image must be credited in a caption with a copyright statement adjacent to the image and in a corresponding reference citation. For examples of citations for images, refer to the APA Style Blog.