Academic research and professional writing are powerful vehicles for communicating your thoughts and ideas not only in your field of study but also in the global workplace. University writing assignments allow you to practice academic and professional writing in a way that supports ethical and honorable writing choices that clearly communicate your ideas and learning.
Your classes and programs are designed to guide you step-by-step through the development of your written communication skills. For example, assignments provide the paremeters of each writing situation, so following the instructions is important in getting started and successfully completing each piece of university writing.
CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY WRITING
There are three ways to integrate research within academic and professional writing.
WHY WE CITE
1. manuscript format (header, margins, font, spacing, etc.);
Signal phrase to cite a paraphrase: Smith (2010) recognized that more online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate.
Signal phrase to cite a quote (Note the page number is added at the end of the quote in a second set of parentheses): Smith (2010) stressed, “The importance of dedicated study time for online courses is crucial for student success” (p. 3).
Parenthetical citation to cite a paraphrase: Online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate (Smith, 2010).
Parenthetical citation to cite a quote: Many researchers have agreed: “Online education is a viable way to help working adults earn a college degree, but it is not for everyone” (Smith, 2010, p. 4).
If there is no individual author, name the corporate author or sponsoring organization:
(National Geographic, 2011, p. 78)
If there is no individual or corporate author, use a shortened version of the title for the in-text citation:
(“Whales of the Atlantic,” 2010)
No year or page number?
No year? Use the acronym for “no date” in the citation:
No page number? Use the paragraph number. To determine it, begin at the title or heading and count the paragraphs to get to the one that contains your quote:
(Sagorski, n.d., para. 4).
APA Reference List Entries
Reference list entries are formatted on a separate page at the end of your paper and provide the full bibliographic information for each source cited in text. The references tell who the author is, when the publication was, what the title is, and where the source was published. In APA Style Central, you will find the specifics for formatting references.