APA Demystified in 5 Minutes

NEW! Common Citations in APA (7th Edition)

In-Text Citations Parenthetical   Narrative 
Quote

(Jensen, 2010, p. 5)

Jensen (2010) stated, “The results of this global warming study are skewed to present a problem that has political pull” (p. 5).
Paraphrase

(Jensen, 2010)

Jensen (2010) believes the results are being misconstrued to support a political agenda.
Article Source  Reference Template and Example

Reference for a blog article

     Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Blog Title. URL

 

    Wayne, J. M. (2010, January 3)Finding balance. Health for Life. http://wayne.blogger.com/longdays 

 

Reference for an editorial article (opinion piece)

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article [Editorial]. Periodical Titlevolume(issue). pages. DOI or URL

   

    Michaels, J. C. (2020). The seeds of change [Editorial]. Nutrition Journal, 10(4)2-3.  http://wayne.blogger.com/longdays

Reference for a journal article with a non-database URL 

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article [Editorial]. Journal Titlevolume(issue), pages. URL

 

    Jones, L. (2009. How to eat and stay slim. Journal  of Healthy Living, 4(3), 120. https://journalofhealthyliving.org 

Reference for a journal article without a DOI from an online research database

   Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article [Editorial]. Journal Titlevolume(issue), pages.

   

   Stultz, L. (2012). The life of a traveling contractor. Urban Living3(4), 12-15.

 

                Do not include the name or URL of the database unless the article is only available in that unique database such as a dissertation only available in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.

 

Reference for a print journal article with no DOI or URL 

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Titlevolume(issue), pages. 

 

    Stultz, L. (2012). The life of a traveling contractor. Urban Living, 3(4), 12-15.

 

Reference for a print or online journal article with a DOI

   

    Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. DOI

   

    West, B. I. (2019). A study of decisions. Academics Journal5(10), 152-155. https://doi.org/xxxxx 

 

Reference for a magazine article

(Magazines may be published in regular issues and have volume and issue numbers like journals, which are written for scholars and specialists.) 

    Author, A. A. (Year, Month XX). Title of article. Periodical Information. URL

 

    Goldfinch, G. B. (2020, January 28). Bird migration: Tracking radar hampered by weather. The New Yorker.  https://newyorker.com/books/page-turner/bird-migration-tracking-radar-hampered-by-story-weather 

 

    Godwit, F. L. (2008). HEpic journey of the Bar-Tail. Birding Magazine , 8(1), 11-19.  http://bit.ly.bar-tail-journey 

 

Reference for a newspaper article in print

   Author, A. A. (Year, Month XX). Title of article.  Newspaper Title, pages.

   

   Fuller, C. (2009, August 17). Mismanagement of valley waterways causes havoc. The Clovis HeraldA3- A4.

 

Reference for a newspaper article online

    Author, A. A. (Year, Month XX). Title of article. Newspaper Title. URL

 

    Brooks, D. (2008, December 27). Mental health issues raise concerns. New Brunswick Times. D2. http://www.newbrunswicktimes.com

 

 

In-Text Citations Parenthetical   Narrative 
Quote

(Clements, 2011, 00:54.)

Include the audio time stamp of when the quote begins.

Clements (2011) said in his podcast, “To be terrific, you must be specific” (00:54).

Paraphrase

(Clements 2011)

Clements (2011) said in his podcast that precise wording is key to writing well.
Audio Work  Reference Template and Examples

Reference for a podcast episode

    Host, H. H. (Host). (Year, Month day). Title of work [Description]. Publisher or Production Company or Department Name, University Name.URL

 

    Clements, K. (Host). (2011, December 16)Understanding citation [Audio podcast]. Academic Success Center, Purdue Global. http://bit.ly/‌understandingcitation

Reference for a song or track

    Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song.  On Title of album. Label. URL (if available)

   

    Callaghan, M. J. (2015). The depths of rain. On Bitter wind. TC Artists.

 

Reference for a speech audio recording

   Presenter, P. P.  (Year, Month XX).  Title of speech [Speech audio recording]. Production Company or Site. URL

 

    Kennedy, J. F. , K. (1961, January 20)Presidential inaugural address [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.‌com‌/speeches/jfkinaugural.htm

 

 

In-Text Citations Parenthetical   Narrative 
Quote

(Martinez, 2009, p. 3)

Martinez (2009) said, “The way to learn APA is to use a guide as a cross-reference” (p. 3).
Paraphrase

(Martinez, 2009)

Martinez (2009) said APA does not need to be memorized.
Article Source  Reference Template and Examples

Reference for a book with an author, print or electronic. (Also include the DOI if available for print source.)

     Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI (if it has one) or URL (if it is an e-book without a DOI)

 

    Martinez, D. L. (2009). Writing with humor (2nd ed.). A1 Press.  http//doi.org‌/10.1036/0091393733​

Reference for a book with an editor, print or electronic

    Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI (if it has one) or URL (if it is an e-book without a DOI)

 

    Sexton, A. S. (Ed.). (2017). Transformational webinars. Simon and Schuster. http//doi.org‌/10.1036/0091393733 https://doi.org/10.13232323232325 

 

Reference for a chapter in a book with an editor

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor, F. F.  Editor, & G. G. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (Xrd ed., Vol. 2, pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

 

    Boone, J. A. & Cairns, C. A. (2008). Writer’s block demystified. In K. Clements, M. L. Pickle, & L. V. Hanson (Eds.), Writers write right (3rd ed., pp. 23-37). Genius Press. 

Reference for an entry in a reference book with a group author (dictionary, encyclopedia, thesaurus)

   Group Author. (Year, Month XX). Entry title. In Source . Retrieved Month XX, Year,  from URL

   

   Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Diaspora. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary.  Retrieved February 28, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diaspora

 

                Use “n.d.” for “no date” for entries that are continuously updated. Provide a retrieval date before the URL when the site does not provide a permanent, archived link (as in a Wikipedia entry reference).

 

Reference for a volume in a multivolume work or a book in a series

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (year). Title (Vol. X). Publisher. DOI (if it has one) or URL (if it is an e-book without a DOI)

 

    Breiter, A. L. & Pickle, M. A. (1999). Writer’s block demystified (Vol. 1). Hachette Book Group. https://doi.org/10.132444463232325

 

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (year). Title (X ed.). Publisher. DOI (if it has one) or URL (if it is an e-book without a DOI)

 

    Mason, R. J. & Schram, B. L. (2016). Restaurant management (5th ed.). Randolph Press. https://doi.org/10.13244456782325

 

Reference for a Wikipedia entry

    Entry title. (Year, Month XX). In Wikipedia. URL

   

    Diaspora. (2020, February 28). In Wikipedia. https://bit.ly/wiki-diaspora

 

In-Text Citation Parenthetical Narrative
Quotation (Sullivan, 2011, para. 3) Sullivan (2011) said, “Discussions help students learn from each other’s professional experience” (para. 3).
Paraphrase (Sullivan, 2011) Sullivan (2011) believes peer-to-peer learning results from discussion forums.
Discussion or Resource Reference Template and Examples

Classroom discussion or course resource

(Use a reference for internal sources only when the reader can access the source.

Otherwise, cite internal sources as a personal communication.)

Author, A. A. (Year, Month day).  Title or content of the post up to the first 20 words. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Date, from https://xxx

 

Sullivan, M. (2011, January 5). Prewriting feedback reflection. CM107 Unit 3 Discussion 1. Retrieved January 29, 2020, from  https://purdueglobal.brightspace.com/d2l/e/40068/discussions 

 

Purdue Global. (n.d.) Learning outcomes and assessment UG. Course Resources. Retrieved January 29, 2020, from https://purdueglobal.brightspace.com/d2l/le/content 

 

In-Text Citation Parenthetical Narrative
Quotation or Paraphrase (D. L. Martinez, personal communication, March 5, 2011) D. L. Martinez (personal communication, March 5, 2011) said, . . .
No Reference Entry Works only accessible to an internal group that are not retrievable by other readers of your paper such as interviews, emails, text messages, conversations, discussion posts, memos, and lectures do not appear in a reference entry on the references page. These sources require an in-text citation only.

 

In-Text Citations Parenthetical Narrative

Quotation

It is acceptable to abbreviate a group author if it is well-known or after using the full name one time in the text.

(Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office [EERE], 2019, Supplementary Information, para. 5). 

Use brackets to enclose the abbreviation of a group author name first mentioned in parentheses.

  (EERE, 2019, Supplementary     Information, para. 5).

The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office (EERE, 2019) reported "The cost for propane is derived from its price relative to that of heating oil"(Supplementary Information, para. 5).

When page, numbers are not given, use the part of the source that would help a reader locate the quote such as the section heading and paragraph in this example. 


Paraphrase (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office [EERE], 2019) The EERE(2019) based the cost of propane on the cost of oil. 
Report Type Reference Templates and Examples

Reference for a government report

If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the entry.

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year).Title of report [Type of Report] (Report No. XXX). Publisher. DOI or URL

 

Burrows, M. J. & Peter, E. (2020).What world post-COVID-19? Three scenarios. Atlantic Council. https://atlantic‌council.‌org/‌wp-content/uploads/2020/04/What-World-Post-COVID-19.pdf

 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office. (2019). Energy conservation program for consumer products: Representative average unit costs of energy [Notice] (Report No. 2019-04245).  U.S. Department of Energy. https://www.regulations.gov/‌document?‌D=EERE_FRDOC_0001-1398

Reference for an issue brief

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year).Title of brief (Issue Brief No. X). Publisher. DOI or URL

   

    Salas, R. N., Knappenberger, P., & Hess, J. (2018). 2018 Lancet countdown on health and climate change brief for the United States of America. Lancet Countdown. https://bit.ly/2018Lancet

  Parenthetical Citations Narrative Citations
Quotation or Paraphrase

(Hughs2020)

(PG Academic Success Center, n.d.)

Hughes (2020) posted, "Support local businesses first! #takeouttuesday

PG Academic Success Center (n.d.) has on its Twitter profile that "Tutors are available throughout the week to assist and support Purdue Global students with their course work." 

Media Source  Reference Template and Examples

Reference for a post or page on Facebook and others

   Author, A. A. or Name of Group [Username]. (Year, Month XX). Content up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals such as Thumbnail with link attached, Video, or Infographic] [Type of post, for example Status update, Poll, Story, or Facebook page]. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if citing a page (Timeline, Album, Home, About…) that is regularly updated

 

    APA Style [APAStyle] . (2020, March 16). For an #APAStyle reference to a webpage, although there may seem to be no individual authors, the author is very [Thumb-nail with link attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/APAStyle/photos/a.419499744742118/4211771922181529/?type=3&theater

 

    Purdue University Global [PurdueGlobal]. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved May 4, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/PurdueGlobal/ 

Reference for a post on Twitter or Instagram

   Author, A. A. [@username] or Group [@username]. (Year, Month XX). Content up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of Post]. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if a Highlight 

   

    PG Academic Success Center [@PurdueGlobalASC]. (2020, March 23). Action plans for online learners: New Video Series [Thumb-nail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://bit.ly/actionplansontwitter

 

   Purdue University Global [@purdueglobal]. (n.d.). Study break [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 20. 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/stories/‌‌highlights/18021688519263190/

Reference for online forums 

   Author, A. A. [Username] or Name of Group [Username]. (Year, Month XX). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if referencing a page that is regularly updated

 

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2020, March 17). We are the NASA and university scientists who study exoplanets, the weird and wonderful planets beyond our solar system. [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://reddit.com/r/space/‌comments/‌g35wtm/we_are-the-nasa-and_university-scientists_who/

 

In-Text Citation Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
Quotation (Lessard, 2016 as cited in Michigan DNR, 2016, 0:27)

Rebecca Lessard, Founder/Director of Wings of Wonder, as cited in Michigan DNR (2019) said, “The mission here is really about education” (0:27).

See the Primary Sources section for more about the “as cited in” format.

Paraphrase (Lessard, 2016 as cited in Michigan DNR, 2016) Rebecca Lessard, Founder/Director of Wings of Wonder as cited in Michigan DNR (2019) described the mission as one that teaches people to respect and appreciate raptors.
Type of Source  Reference Template and Examples
Reference for a Film

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Film]. Production Company. URL if film is accessible by an URL

 

Gondry, M. (Director). (2004). Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind [Film]. Anonymous Content.

 

Reference for a recorded webinar (if the recording is retrievable; otherwise, cite as a personal communication)

   Instructor, I. I. (Instructor) (Year, Month XX). Title of work [Webinar]. Production Company or Department Name, University Name. URL

   

    Huston, T. (Instructor) (2020, March 17). Critical thinking and writing [Webinar]. Academic Success Center, Purdue Globalhttps://bit.ly/asc-criticalthinking

 

Reference for a YouTube video or other streaming video

Artist, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month XX).Title [Video]. Production Company, Label, or Site. URL

 

Michigan Department of Natural Resources [MichiganDNR]. (2016, November 10). Wings of Wonder: Raptor education, rehabilitation and research. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/m4jgfaxfo4k

 

 

In-Text Citations Parenthetical Narrative
Quotation (Park, 2015, slide 9) During her presentation, Park (2015) stated, “All parties must be equally represented at all meetings” (slide 9).
Paraphrase

(Park, 2015)

Park (2015) said representation of every member is important at meetings.

Reproduction or adaptation of a photograph or artwork that is not in the Public Domain or that does not have a Creative Commons license that permits sharing will also require permission to use in addition to copyright attribution aligned with the figure in text.

Example of a copyright notice aligned with an in-text figure (photograph, artwork, chart, table):

Figure #. From (or Adapted from” for adaptations) “Title of Figure,” by Name of Artist, year. State the Creative Common License abbreviation or state it is in the public domain. 

Reference for a photograph

Artist, A. A. (Year).Title [Photograph]. Publisher or Site. URL

 

Cairns, C. (2015). Lilies after rain. [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.‌flickr.com/photos/scotlandcairns/19461114229/ 

Reference for a PowerPoint or presentation slide

    Instructor, I. I. (Year, Month XX).Title [PowerPoint Slide]. Production Company or Department Name, University Name. URL

 

    Park, L. (2011). Effective working teams [PowerPoint slides]. Business Center, Purdue Global. http://www.company.meetings/teams

 

In-Text Citations Parenthetical Narrative
Quotation

(Smith & Jay, 2013, para. 10)

When page numbers are not given, use the section heading and/or paragraph number.

Smith and Jay (2003) are sure that the best way to “preserve nature is to plant native trees.” (para. 10).
Paraphrase

(Smith & Jay, 2013)

("Raising Roofs," n.d.)

Use the title in text for a work without an author. 

Smith and Jay (2013) believe the seeds of native trees are the key to environmental salvation.

Reference for a website or webpage with an individual author

 

    

    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year or Year, Month XX if available). Title of work. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if citing a page that is regularly updated.

 

    Smith, M., & Jay, J. (2013). Growing a better forest.  Leelanau Trees. http://www.leelanautrees/plant-‌native-trees.com

 

Reference for a website or webpage with a group author such as an organization or company

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year or Year, Month XX if available). Title of page. Site Name. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if citing a page that is regularly updated.

 

National Geographic. (2011a). Hybrid Cuban-American crocodiles on the rise.http://bit.ly/24ndK95

 

National Geographic. (2011b). Iceman’s stomach sampled – filled with goat meat. http://bit.ly/1QAf58E

 

                 Note: When the author and year are the same, add lowercase letters after the year (2015a, 2015b, etc.). First alphabetize the references by author name and then by title to determine which is “a” and which is “b.”

 

Reference citation with no individual or corporate author or sponsoring organization

    Title of page. (Year., Month XX or n.d. if a date isn't available). Site Name if different than title of page. URL or Retrieved Month XX, Year from URL if referencing a paper that is regularly updated.

 

    Raising roofs. (n.d.). http://www.raisingroofs.com

 

Sometimes there is missing information when formatting in-text citations and references. The following serves as guidance on how to handle those situations.

No Author If a work does not specify an author or group author, use the title in place of the author.

  • For a paraphrase from article with no author: (“Whales in the Ocean," 2020)
  • For a quotation from a book with no author: (Plant -Based Cooking, 2020, para. 9)
  • The reference list entry for an article would begin with the title in sentence case (capitalizing the first word only and any proper nouns). Books are additionally italicized:

Whales in the ocean. (2020). Ocean Life Magazine. https://www.oceanlife.com

Plant-based cooking. (2020). https://www.plant-basedcookingebook.com

  • Only use “Anonymous” as the author if the work specifically names the author as “Anonymous”: (Anonymous, 2020)

No Date. If no date is provided on the source, use n.d. in the date spot for both in-text citations and reference list entries. For example, an in-text citation would look like this: (Hendrix, n.d.).

 

Primary sources are original reports, findings, or works. Secondary sources are works that refers to primary sources and other secondary sources. If you are using a secondary source for your research, and it refers to another source or a primary source, whenever possible, locate the original source of the desired quote. If the original source is not available, use this “as cited in” method by citing the secondary source that you have while still attributing the quote in text to the original author or source.

 

In-text citation for a quotation

 

In this example, you are using Bragdon’s work, but the information you are citing actually comes from Wright’s work, so you acknowledge both works in text.

Wright’s report (2012, as cited in Bragdon, 2013) stated, “Obesity research indicates people need to drink more water” (p. 223).

Dehydration was shown as a common problem for those with obesity (Write, 2012, as cited in Bragdon, 2013).

Reference for the secondary source where you retrieved the primary source information.

Bragdon, A. A. (2013). Obesity research. Medical Journal 23(4), 223-227.

   

 

 

 

Multiple Authors

Two authors.

For in-text citations, cite both names every time:

(Rios & Pickle, 2010) or Rios and Pickle (2010) contend . . .

For reference list citations, cite both authors’ names:

Rios, C. A. & Pickle, M. B. (2010). Fun and easy APA. Oxbow River Press.

Note: The ampersand (&) is used between two authors in the text when their names are written in parentheses. The ampersand (&) is also used with names on the reference list. For n

Three or more authors.

Cite only the first author followed by et al. for an in-text citation: (Cairns et al., 2009) or Cairns et al. (2009) studied . . . (Et al. is a Latin abbreviation for “and others.”)

For a reference list citation, cite the first 20 author names. Use an ampersand before the last author’s name:

Author, A. A., Author B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T.

For 21 or more authors, use three spaced ellipsis points ( . . . ) after the 19th author and then cite the last author’s name without an ampersand.

Author, A. A., Author B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, W. W.

Authors with the same surname.

If two or more authors of a work have the same surname, include the author’s first name initial in the in-text citation even if the date is different.

(D. Martinez, 2001; S. Martinez, 2003) or D. Martinez (2001) disagreed with S. Martinez (2003) in the findings . . .

In the reference list, D. Martinez would be alphabetized before S. Martinez.

Sources with the same author and year.

To tell references apart when the author and year are the same, add lowercase letters after the year (2011a, 2011b, etc.). First alphabetize the references by author name and then by title to determine which is “a” and which is “b.”

Hood, R. M. (2011a). Where do I place commas? [Video file]. Available from http://www.wheredoIplaceacomma.com

Hood, R. M. (2011b). The writing process [Video file]. Available from http://www.thewritingprocess.com

Sample APA 7th edition title page

Notes on this sample title page:

  • In the header of the document at the right margin, insert the page number.
  • In the upper half of the page, three to four lines down from the header, provide the title of the paper in bold, Title Case. 
  • Double space the title page and entire paper, adding an additional double-spaced line between the title and the “byline”—author name.
  • Provide the byline and related information in regular font. First provide the author’s name and affiliated university.
  • Next, provide the number and name of the course, the professor of the course, and due date.

Always check with your instructor about additional information required on this page.

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Notes on this sample reference list:

  • The reference list begins on a new page at the end of the paper before any tables or appendices.
  • The right margin of the header provides the page number, continued from the previous page.
  • The word References is centered on the first line under the header in bold font.
  • The citations are formatted using a “hanging indent” where the second and subsequent lines are indented a half inch under the first line in order to improve readability.
  • Double space the reference list, including within a reference entry.
  • Two or more works by the same author are ordered chronologically by publication date.
  • References with the same first author and a different second author are alphabetized by the second author.

Documentation in APA: In-Text Citations

Documentation in APA Style use the author-date citation system. In this system, every source used in a paper is documented with an in-text citation in the body of the paper and a corresponding reference list entry. The in-text citation identifies the source by its author and date of publication, and the reference entry provides the author, date, title, and the source (the journal, book, or website, for example). Additional rules apply for in-text citations for varying source types and paraphrasing, but there are two primary types of in-text citations: narrative and parenthetical.

Narrative Citations

In narrative citations, the author’s name is part of a sentence and usually appears in a signal phrase that introduces the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized information. The second part of the citation, the date (usually only the publication year unless the source is a periodical) then appears in parentheses immediately following the author’s name. Here is an example:

Smith (2010) recognized that more online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate.

When citing a quotation using a narrative citation, the author’s name is used in the sentence, the date is given in parentheses after the author’s name, and the specific part of the source where the quote appears such the page, paragraph, time stamp on a video, or bar on a graph goes in parentheses after the quote and before any punctuation. Here are two examples:

Smith (2010) stressed, “The importance of dedicated study time for online courses is crucial for student success” (p. 3).

In his TEDX Talk video, Mulvey (2013) said, “Time is too long. Space is too large” (6:18).

Parenthetical Citations

In parenthetical citations, the author-date information goes after the paraphrase:

Online learning opportunities are needed to reach marginalized high school students and decrease the dropout rate (Smith, 2010).

For a quotation, the parenthetical citation contains the author and date, and it also contains the specific part of the source such as the page or paragraph number or the timestamp of a video.

Many researchers have agreed: “Online education is a viable way to help working adults earn a college degree, but it is not for everyone” (Smith, 2010, p. 4).

Author Names

An author may be an individual, multiple people, or a group such as an organization, company, or governmental agency. In an in-text citation, the format is to use the author or authors’ last names or the group author name. 

Individual Author: (Hannah, 2000)

Multiple Authors: (Hannah & Lay, 2015); (Hannah, Lay, & Sleder, 2010).  

Group Author: (Hannah and Lay Company, 2020)

The URL for a source is not part of an in-text citation except in the rare cases that the URL is also the author’s name such as Drugs.com: (Drugs.com, n.d.).

Electronic Publications: Page Numbers

The in-text citation for a quotation includes the part of the source where the information is found. Page numbers are common in printed books and articles; however, for electronic sources without page numbers, you will need to provide another way for a reader to locate the quoted passage in the original source. The following options are acceptable:

·       Paragraph number: (Mackenzie, 2018, para. 1)

·       Heading or section name: (Mackenzie, 2018, Highlands section)

·       Both section and paragraph: (Mackenzie, 2018, Highlands section, para. 1)

For audiovisual works, provide the time stamp of when the quoted words begin: (Mulvey, 2013, 6:18).

Reference List Entries in APA Style (7th Edition)

A reference list entry should be provided for each source cited in text. Reference list entries have four elements: author, date, title, and source. The “source” here is the publication where the information was published such as a website, book, or periodical. Each element of the reference answers a question:

  • Author: Who is responsible for this work?
  • Date: When was this work published?
  • Title: What is this work called?
  • Source: Where can I retrieve this work?

Reference entries and in-text citations correspond: The author or title given in the in-text citation is the first element of the reference entry. The following formatting requirements apply to the reference list:

  • Title the reference list References in bold font, centered at the top of the page.
  • Double-space all reference list entries. Also use double spacing within entries. Do not use additional spacing between entries.
  • Reference entries are not numbered or bulleted.
  • Use a hanging indent for all references, so the first line of the entry is against the left margin and subsequent lines of the entry are indented a half inch.
  • Alphabetize the entries according to the author’s last name. If the entry does not include an author, begin the entry with the title followed by the year in parentheses and alphabetize according to the first significant word of the title. If the title begins with the words A, An, or The, alphabetize using the next word in the title.  Example: The title The Whales of the Atlantic Ocean would be alphabetized using the letter “W” because “Whales” is the first significant word.

DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) and URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)

Resources available online have URLs, which are web links, or DOIs, which are unique strings of numbers that provide persistent and reliable links to resources. Here are some basic guidelines for URLs and DOIs in reference entries:

  • If a source has a DOI, include it in the reference entry. Some print texts also have DOIs. The DOI is often given near the copyright information at the beginning of a text.
  • Present DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks in the reference entry. Hyperlinks begin http:// or https://. DOIs will begin https://doi.org/. It is acceptable to use the shortDOI® Service to shorten long DOIs and an URL shortener service such as https://bitly.com/ to shorten URLs .
  • All hyperlinks should be live and may appear using the automatic formatting of the word processing program (for example in blue font and underlined) or they may appear in standard black font without an underline, but they should still be live links when clicked.
  • Do not include additional words before the hyperlink such as “Retrieved from” or “DOI.”

Common Citations in APA (6th Edition): Click the tabs to view the in-text and reference citation formats.

In-Text Citations             

Parenthetical

Signal Phrase

Quotation                                                                                    

(Jensen, 2010, p. 5)

Note:  If no author is provided, use a shortened version of the title enclosed in quotation marks (“Immigration Rules,” 2009, p. 7).

                                        

Jensen (2010) stated, “The results of this global warming study are skewed to present a problem that has political pull” (p. 5).

A spokesperson for the Arizona Border Patrol said, “We have only so many rangers to guard hundreds of miles of border land; there are bound to be problems” (“Immigration Rules,” 2009, p. 7).

Paraphrase 

(Jensen, 2010)

Note:  If no author is provided, use a shortened version of the title enclosed in quotation marks (“Immigration Rules,” 2009).

Jensen (2010) believes the results were fabricated to cater to a certain political agenda.

The Border Patrol’s problems are too many miles to patrol and not enough rangers to patrol them (“Immigration Rules,” 2009).

 

Reference citation for a print journal

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page.

Stultz, L. (2012). The life of a traveling contractor. Urban Living, 3(4), 12-15.

Reference citation for a online journal article with no DOI

Author, A. A.  (date of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from URL

Jones, L. (1990). How to eat and stay slim. Journal of Healthy Living, 4(3), 120-125.  Retrieved from http://journalofhealthyliving.org

Note: Give the journal home page as the URL. Do not reference the database where the resource was retrieved.

Reference citation for a print journal article with a DOI

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue), page numbers. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx

VanNess, V. (2009). Understanding the Vikings. Journal of Norwegian History, 24(3), 223-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/0098987677

Note: Do not put “Retrieved from” before the DOI link. Also correct is to put the DOI number after “doi:” as shown below:

VanNess, V. (2009). Understanding the Vikings. Journal of Norwegian History, 24(3), 223-227. doi: 10.1026/0098987677