APA Citation When Information is Missing

Sometimes there is missing information when compiling citation data.  The following serves as guidance on how to handle those situations.

  • No Author vs. Anonymous. The designation of “anonymous” in a citation is reserved for only those times when the original source lists the author as “anonymous.”  If no author is provided, the next thing to look for is a sponsoring organization or corporate author.  If there is no sponsoring organization or corporate author, then use a shortened version of the title as discussed in Author Names.
  • No date. If no date is provided on the source, use n.d. in the date spot for both in-text and reference list citations.  For example, an in-text citation would look like this: (Hendrix, n.d.).
  • No place of publication. If no city or state or country is provided for the place of publication, use n.p. in the location spot of a reference list citation.  For example: Hendrix, M. (2009). Living on pennies a day. n.p.: Student Publications, Inc.