APA Citation for Author Issues

Multiple Authors

  • Two authors. For in-text citations, cite both names every time: (Rios & Pickle, 2010) or Rios and Pickle (2010) contend . . 

For reference list citations, cite both authors’ names:

Rios, C. A. & Pickle, M. B. (2010). Fun and easy APA. London: Oxbow River Press.

Note: The ampersand (&) is used between two authors in the text when their names are written in parentheses. The ampersand (&) is also used with names on the reference list.

  • Three-five authors. Cite all authors the first time and then only the first author followed by et al. for subsequent in-text citations.  (Et al. is a Latin abbreviation for “and others.”)

1st instance: (Jay, Harley, & Rios, 2011) or Jay, Harley, and Rios (2011) said . . .

2nd instance: (Jay et al., 2011) or Jay et al. (2011) stated . . .

For reference list citations, use all authors’ names separated by a comma:

Boone, J. H., Pickle, M. B., & Rios, C. A. (2011). Writing center resources for online students. Online Education, 23(4), 45-50.

  • Six or more authors. Cite only the first author followed by et al. for an in-text citation: (Cairns et al., 2009) or Cairns et al. (2009) studied . . .

For a reference list citation, cite the first six author names. If there are more than six, use three spaced ellipsis points ( . . . ) after the sixth author and then cite the last author’s name as shown in the original source.

Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F., . . . Author, R.

Authors with the same surname. If you have two or more sources that have authors with the same surname, include the author’s first name initial in the in-text citation even if the date is different.

(D. Martinez, 2001; S. Martinez, 2003) or D. Martinez (2001) disagreed with S. Martinez (2003) in the findings . . .

In the reference list, D. Martinez would be alphabetized before S. Martinez.

Sources with the same author and year. To tell references apart when the author and year are the same, add lowercase letters after the year (2011a, 2011b, etc.).  First alphabetize the references by author name and then by title to determine which is “a” and which is “b.”

Hood, R. M. (2011a). Where do I place commas? [Video file]. Available from http://www.screencast.com/t/FXifG0fUfzN 

Hood, R. M. (2011b). The writing process [Video file]. Available from http://www.screencast.com/t/aSpsr5QFJmq